'미국태권도'에 해당되는 글 2건

  1. 2010.05.23 Was American Karate only Taekwondo ?
  2. 2010.05.01 미국태권도 고단자회
Report/Martial Arts2010.05.23 01:30

Was American Karate only Taekwondo ?

Introduction :

The purpose of this article is to see if, during the sixties or seventies, American karate was largely made of Korean Taekwondo practitioners, declared or not. This article also mentions the various first Taekwondo World Championships.

Brief history of Taekwondo :

It is very difficult to be sure about the Taekwondo roots. We will not mention the various historical versions, changes of names and schools. It would be too boring.

From the Western Middle Ages time, fighting techniques with bare hands have been developed in Korea. The contributions of Kung-Fu and Karate neighbours are undeniable, given the proximity of China and the invasion by Japan, in the twentieth century.

Released in 1945, Korea was divided into two parts. Traditional martial arts were still alive and not unified. Korean War took place from 1950 to 1953, with a strong U.S. intervention.

Choi Hong Hi :

General Choi is a karate black belt, after a period of his life in Japan, before World War II. At the end of this war, he returns to South Korea and becomes a soldier.

In 1955, Choi Hong Hi, a Chung Do Kwan practitioner, proposes the name of Taekwondo (the kicks and punches way), to several teachers, gathered together to unify the various existing schools (Kwan). The Korean Taekwondo Association is created in 1959 to facilitate the unification. The role played by various military officers during this unification has something to do with the teaching of Taekwondo in the army.

General Choi creates the ITF (International Taekwondo Federation) in 1966. He is forced to leave South Korea in 1971. General Choi wanted to teach Taekwondo in North Korea, but the South refused this project. ITF then moves its headquarters out of South Korea, in Toronto/Canada.


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General Choi Hong Hi

The WTF (World Taekwondo Federation) is founded in 1973 in South Korea and replaces the ITF in this country. The WTF is recognized by the South Korean government, but many American instructors are not affiliated with this federation. The Olympic Committee recognizes the WTF in 1980.

Un Yong Kim :

Un Yong Kim, former Secretary to the Prime Minister , diplomat and former head of presidential protection forces, is elected president of the Korean Taekwondo Association in 1971. He participates in the building of the Kukkiwon, the World Taekwondo centre. He becomes the WTF president in 1973, at its foundation.

Un Yong Kim is Vice-President of the Organizing Committee for the Seoul Olympics Games in 1988. Taekwondo is introduced during these Games, as a demonstration sport.

He joins the IOC in 1986 and becomes its Vice-President in 1992.

He retires from the WTF in 2004 and from the IOC in 2005, following several cases of corruption. One of this case concerns the determination of the Olympic cities and other concern sport corruption in Korea. Un Yong Kim is ultimately sentenced to 2 years in jail.

Tang Soo Do :

In the United States, the term Tang Soo Do is frequently used during the 60s and 70s. It is very difficult to make a history of this art, which emerge from one of the Kwan above mentioned, the Moo Duk Kwan. This branch has refused the Taekwondo unification. Thereafter, the Tang Soo Do has been divided into various families. The Tang Soo Do techniques have been very influenced by Japanese karate. Tang So Do means "The way of Chinese hand", as the japanese term "Karate Do".

USA :

The presence of U.S. troops in Korea, following the military intervention during Korean war, has allowed many GI to learn Taekwondo and to import this Martial Art in the USA. At the same time, Taekwondo (or the South Korean government) will send Korean instructors, all over the world, to teach their sport.

For example, Jack Hwang practices Taekwondo since his early childhood. After a time in the Korean army, Hwang arrives in 1957 in the USA and teaches martial arts. He has, among others, Mike Stone as a student. Hwang is a Taekwondo (then named Karate) precursor in the U.S. South-West.

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Chuck Norris, left, facing Skipper Mullins, both Taekwondo practitioners.

In 1956, Rhee Jhoon (see his article in this blog) arrives in Texas and brings Taekwondo in this country. In reality, he teaches Tang Soo Do and uses the term Karate to describe his sport to the American public. One of his students is Allen Steen.

Allen Steen takes over Jhoon Rhee's school, after the latter's departure to Washington. Steen is considered as the father of karate in Texas. Pat Burleson, already practicing Karate, becomes one of his students.

Allen Steen creates the Texas Karate Institute in 1962, with Richard Jenkins. This 'Made in Texas" Karate, Taekwondo in reality, is known to be tough and with high level of contact.

Steen creates the Southwest Karate Black Belt Association in 1964 in Dallas/Texas. It becomes the American Black Belt Karate Association in 1972 and adds to it the name "Chin Sook Hage Kwan" in 1981. Skipper Mullins and Roy Kurban are his students.

Henry Cho, from Korea, arrives in the USA. in 1958. He teaches Taekwondo in this country, creating many schools all around the country. Henry Cho also organizes the All American Open Tournament of Champions, which includes Taekwondo and Karate.

Byong Yu is an interesting character of this period. This Korean arrives in the USA in 1964. He takes part in many American tournaments, against various bigger and heavier opponents.

Various American Taekwondo fighters :

Chuck Norris (see his article in this blog) is a perfect example of the karate fighter, who was practicing Tang So Doo. He was in the army, in Korea, in 1958.

In 1966, Norris takes part to the Tang Soo Do Invitational Tournament, held in Washington/DC. He loses against John Camanse, in the prelims, in the middleweights division.

In 1967, Norris wins the American Tang Soo Do Championships. It proves that separate competitions existed in the U.S. for Korean Martial Arts practitioners. He defeats Skipper Mullins for the Grand Champion finals. Shorin-Ryu and Burmese Bando Fighters also take part in these championships (Black Belt March 1968).

Chuck Norris wears often a white uniform lined with black, typical of Taekwondo (Dobok).


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Ernest H. Lieb in action

In 1967, Ernest H Lieb, German born but American naturalized, is in the Army in Korea, from 1962 to 1964. He takes part to various tournaments in the country, wins 12 finals and 3 second places. He wins among others Taesoo-do Championships, in Namsam/Korea, in the lightweights, and Chi Kwan Do Championships. He will create the American Karate Association, after his return to the USA and will compete in karate.

In 1968, in Sacramento/California, a tournament takes place between a Korea team and the USA. Joe Lewis and Ron Marchini are part of the American team. Lewis def Ju Kim Hum, after a violent and unfair fight. Marchini also meets Ju Hum Kim and also wins after a bloody match for Marchini's face. Lewis vs Byung (Byong) Yu, Captain of the Korean team, is violent and Lewis appears to have won. The U.S. wins by 8 victories to 7 defeats (Black Belt November 1968).

Jeff Smith (see his article in this blog) is also a Taekwondo practitioner and a former Jhoon Rhee and Allen Steen's student.

Mitchell Bobrow receives his black belt from Ki Whang Kim in 1965. Bobrow is often mentioned as one of the best karate fighters and is member of the U.S. team during the 1st WUKO World Championships Karate in 1970, in Tokyo. In 1968, in Philadelphia, Bobrow, 17 years old, beats Joe Lewis, at the Tae Gyun Tourney. Joe Lewis was the winner at the end of the fight, but an overtime has been decided, during which Mitchell Bobrow beats his opponent. Bobrow loses in the finals to Dutcher (Black Belt January 1969).

In the 70s, the AAU National Taekwondo Association already exists. The United States Taekwondo Union (USTU) will absorb it, and will become the USA Taekwondo (USAT), linked to the WTF. Henry Cho is one of the members of this association.

WTF World Championships :

The Taekwondo needs to grow and to gain world recognition. To do this, the WTF, newly formed, organizes the World Championships, three years after the WUKO had done the same thing for karate.

May 25 to 27, 1973. Seoul/South Korea.

This paragraph is based on the November 1973 Black Belt magazine.

17 nations take part in this first World Championship, in the Kukkiwon. Fighters wear already a blue or red plastron, without other protection. The punches to the face are forbidden, but the kicks are allowed.

The U.S. Central and West Team are quickly eliminated, the latter vs Mexico.

The U.S. East Team loses his first match against Korea, by 2 to 0. U.S. beats after West Germany and Taiwan, by 3 to 2. In the finals, South Korea wins against the USA East Team, by 3.5 to 1.5. Taiwan finishes 3rd and Mexico 4th.

Team U.S. East Team is composed of Mike Warren, Archie Cole, Joseph Hayes, Albert Cheeks, Jim Butin, and coach Jack Hwang or David Kim ?, depending on the versions.

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Fred Absher, left, at the World Championships.

In the individuals, 2 categories of weight are planned, light and heavyweights, each won by Koreans. You can see the medals record under.

 
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In the heavyweights, Mike Warren loses against Jung Tae Kim in the finals. Albert Almond Cheeks finishes 3rd and Raymond B. Sell 4th.

In the lightweights, Joe Hayes finishes 3rd, beyind Ki-Hyung Lee (Kee-Hyung Lee) and Charero/West Germany ?, and Georg Karrenberg (West-Germany) 4th.

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Un Yong Kim gives the team medal

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Mike Warren, right, face Uee-Sung Kawg, during the team finals.

August, 28 to 31, 1975. Seoul / South Korea.

During the second World Championships, 30 nations are represented. South Korea Team wins the competition, Taiwan is 2nd and Mexico 3rd. The U.S. team is composed by William Felton, Gerard Robbins, Dennis Robinson, Terrance Watson, Frank Rodriguez, Gary Mule, Clark Murphy, Robert Philips and John Holloway.


In the individuals, are 8 weight divisions. Only Dennis Robinson wins a medal, a bronze in the bantams. The South Koreans wins 8 gold medals.

ITF World Championships :

Like the karate IAKF Federation, the second World Taekwondo Federation, ITF, organizes its own World Championships.

October 4 to 5, 1974. Montreal / Canada.

This paragraph comes from the February 1975 Black Belt magazine issue.

Four categories of competition are planned, including the breaking, the flying kicks, forms and freesparring.

Javier Dacak Frutos/Argentina wins the gold medal in the breaking.

Anto Nobilo Taekwondo
Anto Nobilo, Croatia, won the silver medal.

In freesparring, the American John L Hooloway wins the gold medal in the heavyweights, Don James/Canada, in the middleweights and Do Hee Lee/Korea, in the lightweights. Hooloway arrives at the second places in breaking. He also takes part in the WTF 1977 and 1979 World Championships, with two bronze medals, still in the heavyweights.

Maurizzo Calizzia Taekwondo

Kang Kwang Ho/Venezuela, left, against Maurizzo Calizzia/Italy

Teams competition. The USA are first, Netherlands 2nd and Canada 3rd.

A question still remains. How strong was the Korea team, because the ITF was very poorly represented in this country. This would explain the poor Korean performances.

September 1978. Oklahoma City / USA.

Javier Dacak Frutos wins the supreme title in his category, as Liam Dandy for Ireland and Benny Rivera/Puerto Rico. Jaime Morales/Dominican Republic, wins the gold medal in the heavyweights and wins the silver medal with his national team.

Mexico :

Daiwon Moon, aka David Moon, begins practicing Tang Soo Do in Korea before emigrating to the USA in 1962. He participates in many tournaments in this country and wins 3 times the United States Karate Champion, organized by Steen. In 1969 he travels to Mexico and develops there Taekwondo, subsequently named Moo Duk Kwan.

The Mexican Taekwondo team during the 1973 WTF World Championships, consisted of Isaias Duenas (see his article in this blog), José Luis Torres Galindo, José Luis Olivares, E Moran, Buika and Antonio Ramiro Guzman, (see the article " Full-contact development in Europe"). Mexico reaches the 4th places.

Ramiro Guzman, who was a student of David Moon in the USA and who followed Moon in Mexico, def Huang Chung-Ming, at the 1973 World Championships. The team finished 4th in Mexico, sometimes also referred to the 3rd . Ramiro Guzman still wins the silver medal in the batamweights in 1975 (3rd place with the Mexican team), the silver medal in 1977 in Chicago/USA and bronze medal in 1979, in Stuttgart/Germany, in the flyweight division.

Ramiro Guzman vs Huang Chung Ming Taekwondo

Ramiro Guzman, right, vs Huang Chung Ming

Full-Contact :

The Mexican school, with Duenas and Guzman and Jeff Smith in the USA, has provided good fighters for the full-contact development, since 1974. This may be due to the use of Taekwondo total contact with the kicks.

Byong Yu's brother, Yu Byong Hong, participates without success to the first PKA full-contact championships in 1974, in Los Angeles.

France :

We have unfortunately very little information about the beginnings of Taekwondo in France. He seems to have been imported in 1969, by Lee Kwan Young. Under his leadership, France will participate in the 1st World Championships in 1973, without results. Unfortunately, we do not know the names of the French fighters.

During the 1975 World Championships, Lee Kwan-Young was manager. Daniel Boumrar (bantam), Jean-Luc Ripault (feather), Ruben Vir Lenc (light) and Laurent Barberon (heavy) were present.

During the first European Taekwondo Championships in Barcelona/ pain in 1976, Eric Gancylus wins a bronze medal in the lightweights. In the 1978 and 1980 European Championship, Patrick Stanzack wins each time a bronze medal, fin the middleweights.

It will take many years before the French Taekwondo Federation becomes independent of the Karate Federation.

Conclusions :

Without denying the role of Japanese karate in the development of the U.S. Karate, Taekwondo, as a Korean karate, also played a big role in the development of this sort of sport.

In addition, many karate champions were Taekwondo practitioner, almost anonymous in front of the Japanese karate fighters. It was easier to advertise under the Japanese name "Karate", already a myth, than under the Korean name "Taekwondo".

It was not until the early seventies that the Taekwondo made its "coming out" and becomes a fully known sport.
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Posted by IMACI somakorea
Report/Martial Arts2010.05.01 16:13

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한 세대(Generation)를 가늠하는 일반적 시계열적 구분 개념은 약 30년 정도이다. 격동의 한국 사회를 구분하는 여러 가지 방법 중에 우리는 일제강점기 이후, 30년이라는 세대구분법을 통하여 탈일본화, 산업화, 민주화 과정을 겪으며 성장해 왔다. 1949년 대한민국 정부 수립 무렵에는 일제 잔재를 청산하고 민주주의를 기반으로 하는 새로운 이념적 개념의 탈 일본화를 통한 새 시대의 구현에 심혈을 기울인 세대였다.

이후 30년 세대는 ‘우리도 한번 잘 살아보자’는 기치아래 산업화에 온 힘을 기울이는 역량을 기울인 세대라고 할 수 있다. 또한 1979년 이후 30년간은 민주화를 위한 뜨거운 열정과 시대적 사명감으로 또다른 성장을 이룬 세대였다. 물론 각 세대에 대한 세세한 공과(功過)논쟁은 있을 수 있으나, 이러한 세대별 과정을 통하여 한국의 현대사회가 성숙해 왔음은 부정할 수 없다.

그렇다면 이러한 세대별 변화 과정 속에서 무시할 수 없는 우리의 신체 문화인 무도는 과연 어떠한 모습으로 변화해 왔을까? 우선 가장 민감한 부분이었던 탈일본화 과정을 통하여 나름대로 독특한 ‘한국화’과정을 위해 많은 논쟁과 공력을 거쳐왔다.

이중 태권도의 경우 경기화를 통한 한국화 과정에 성공함으로써 오늘날의 위상을 쌓아 왔다. 태권도를 통해 한국을 알리는 첨병 역할을 해 온 것이다. 하지만 이러한 태권도 위상이 정립되기까지는 해외에서 태권도 발전을 위해 헌신한 태권도 지도자들의 노력이 없었다면 불가능했을 것이다.

특히 미국에 진출한 초창기 태권도지도자들은 수많은 시련과 어려움 속에서 무도태권도를 알리기 위하여 심혈을 기울여 왔다. 1949년 고 최홍희(당시 대령)에 의하여 미국의 캔사스 시티의 군사학교에서 태권도는 당수도라는 이름으로 시범을 보였다. 이후 수많은 태권도 지도자들이 미국으로 진출하기 시작했다. 이들 초창기 지도자들은 당시의 각 관을 배경으로 무도적 색채가 강한 태권도를 전파하기 시작했다.

이런 초창기 미국 태권도 지도자들이 한자리에 모인다고 하여, 자리를 함께했다.

지난주 23일부터 25일까지 미국 텍사스주 달라스(Dallas)에서 2010 미국태권도고단자회(회장 임규붕) 정기총회 겸 제5회 태권도명예의 전당 시상식(HALL OF FAME AWARD)이 열렸다. 또한 이날 행사에는 제1회 태권도 미국태권도 심포지엄도 동시에 개최됐다.

태권도의 초창기 진출사와 태권도를 통한 인성교육이라는 주제로 강연이 이루어졌고, 2부 행사로 태권도진흥재단(이사장 이대순)의 유진환 사무총장이 ‘태권도 공원, 세계태권도아카데미 교육프로그램’이라는 주제로 강연을 했다. 특히 심포지엄의 특별 순서로 대표적인 한국 품새지도자인 안재윤 총관장이 강연에 나서 호평을 받았다.

임규붕 회장은 “이번에 거행되는 2010 미국태권도고단자회는 미국 전지역에 있는 고단자(8, 9단)들이 중심이 되어 8회까지 오게 되었다. 그리고 미국태권도 발전에 이바지한 지도자를 대상으로 태권도 명예의 전당 시상식을 5회째 열고 있다. 시상내용은 태권도개척자상, 평생태권도인상, 지도자상, 평화 봉사상, 연구·저작상, 태권도대사상, 코치상, 선수상등과 같이 훌륭한 업적을 남긴 태권도인을 선정한 것이다”고 말했다. 태권도가 미국 내에 뿌리내리는데 공헌을 한 태권도인을 기리고 점점 퇴색되어 가는 무도태권도의 정체성을 명확히 하겠다는 임회장의 소신이 느껴진다.

24일(토)에 거행된 시상식에는 약 330명의 미국 태권도지도자들이 참석했다. 이날 특히 주목을 받은 태권도지도자는 평화봉사상을 시상한 황정오 그랜드 마스터였다. 황 관장은 1984년 L.A올림픽 유도 은메달리스트이며, 도미 후 캔터키주 루이스빌(Louisville)에서 현재 태권도 도장을 운영하고 있다. 황 관장은 “태권도를 통해 지역 커뮤니티에 봉사활동을 해 온 것이 이번 시상의 배경이 된 것 같다. 상을 받게 되어 무한히 기쁘다. 앞으로는 태권도를 통해 공동체를 형성하는데 노력하겠다”는 소감을 말했다.

무도에는 예로부터 철저한 도제형식으로 사제관계가 정립되어 왔다. 사제동행과 일자상전과 같은 엄격한 규범이 있다. 근대 이후에 대일본 무덕회에서 기경(棋徑)의 위기구품(圍棋九品)을 받아 들여 무도수련의 정도(程度)를 구분 짓는 단급제가 시작됐다. 무도의 8단은 좌조(坐照)라고 해서 ‘앉아서 모든 것을 꿰뚫어 본다’는 의미를 가지고 있으며, 9단은 입신(入神)이라하여 그야말로 신의 경지에 도달한 것을 의미한다.

태권도 고단자회(TaeKwonDo Grand Masters Society)는 이러한 의미를 잘 알고 있었다. 이들이 다른 삿된 것에 얽매이지 않은 큰 어른으로서의 역할을 기대해 본다.

[글=최종균교수(선문대), 편집 = 방환복 기자 / press01@mookas.com]

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Posted by IMACI somakorea